Comparison of energy demand and emissions from road, rail and waterway transport in long-distance freight transport.
Rail and waterway are commonly considered a better environmental performer in the carriage of goods than road.
But the validity of such general statements is limited as our a new study shows. It depends on the respective individual case. In comparative studies, rail shows better GHG emissions than road by a factor of two to five. However, these studies raise questions regarding the chosen assumptions and boundary conditions.