White Paper

Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers

Date:
20/03/2015

This paper is the first part of a two paper series commissioned by the European Copper Institute.

It addresses the different primary energy definitions, accounting methods, and their applications with a focus on electricity and heat generation from renewable energy.

In addition to renewable energy sources, primary energy factors for electricity from waste, nuclear, and imported electricity are also discussed as these can be calculated in different ways.

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